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Cancer begins when normal cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body).
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare form of adenocarcinoma, which is a broad term describing any cancer arising from glandular tissues. AdCC is found mainly in the head and neck, but it can occasionally occur in a woman’s uterus or other sites in the body. It most commonly occurs in the salivary glands, which consist of clusters of cells that secrete saliva scattered throughout the upper aerodig estive tract (the organs and tissues of the upper respiratory tract, including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords, and part of the esophagus and windpipe). A tumor may begin in the:
- Minor salivary glands
- Palate (roof of the mouth)
- Nasopharynx (air passageway at the upper part of the throat and behind the nose)
- Tongue base (the back third of the tongue)
- Mucosal lining of the mouth (inner lining of the mouth; glands located here produce mucus)
- Larynx (voicebox)
- Trachea (windpipe)
- Major salivary glands
- Parotid (largest salivary gland found on either side of the face in front of the ears)
- Submandibular (found under the jawbone)
- Sublingual glands (in the bottom of the mouth under the tongue)
Regardless of where it starts, AdCC tends to spread along nerves (perineural invasion) or through the bloodstream. It spreads to the lymph nodes in only about 5% to 10% of cases. The most common place of metastases (spreading) is the lung. AdCC is known for having long periods of indolence (no growth) followed by growth spurts. However, AdCC can behave aggressively in some people, making the course of the AdCC unpredictable.
Besides being classified based on where the cancer begins, AdCC is also described based on the histologic (how cells look under a microscope) variations of the tumor, including cylindroma, cribiform, and solid AdCC. AdCC is sometimes classified as a disease of the minor salivary gland, even though it may begin at other sites.
This section covers AdCC. Learn more about head and neck cancers.
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