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Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood Tumor - Overview

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find some basic information about this disease and the parts of the body it may affect. This is the first page of Cancer.Net’s Guide to Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen. Think of that menu as a roadmap to this full guide.

Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) is a rare type of brain tumor that can occur during childhood. A tumor begins when normal cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body). DIG is a type of glioma, a tumor that starts in the glial cells, which are supportive cells in the brain. It usually occurs on one side of the brain, can be very large, and is more common for children younger than one year old. DIG is made up of more than one type of cell and also contains cysts. It is thought that DIG begins even before a baby is born.

DIG was originally classified as a low-grade, slow-growing tumor that is usually noncancerous. However, in some instances, the tumor grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other parts of the brain or body; this is called a high-grade tumor (see Stages and Grades).

This section covers DIG diagnosed in children. Learn more about brain tumors in adults.

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If you would like additional introductory information, explore this related item. Please note this link takes you to another section on Cancer.Net:

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Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Statistics

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find information about how many children learn they have desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) each year and some general survival information. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Brain and spinal cord tumors are the second most common type of childhood cancer, after leukemia. However, DIG is a rare type of childhood brain tumor that is found mainly in very young children.

To continue reading this guide, use the menu on the side of your screen to select another section.  

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Risk Factors

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about the factors that increase the chance of developing this type of cancer. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing a tumor. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause a tumor. Some people with several risk factors never develop the disease, while others with no known risk factors do.

The causes of DIG are unknown. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent the disease.

To continue reading this guide, use the menu on the side of your screen to select another section.

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Symptoms and Signs

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about body changes and other things that can signal a problem that may need medical care. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Children with DIG may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, children with DIG do not show any of these symptoms. Or, these symptoms may be caused by a medical condition that is not a tumor. If you are concerned about a symptom or sign on this list, please talk with your child’s doctor.

  • Seizure/convulsion, which is a sudden involuntary movement of a person’s muscles
  • Rapid skull growth/increased head size
  • Tense and bulging fontanelle (infant’s soft spot)
  • Abnormal sensations
  • Decreased sensation
  • Numbness
  • Weakness
  • Loss of muscle control
  • Increased or decreased muscle tone
  • Paralysis (unable to move part of all of the body)

Your child’s doctor will ask you questions about the symptoms your child is experiencing to help find out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis. This may include how long he or she has been experiencing the symptom(s) and how often.

If DIG is diagnosed, relieving symptoms and side effects remains an important part of care and treatment. This may also be called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. Be sure to talk with your child’s health care team about symptoms your child experiences, including any new symptoms or a change in symptoms.

The next section helps explain what tests and scans may be needed to learn more about the cause of the symptoms. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Diagnosis, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.  

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Diagnosis

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find a list of the common tests, procedures, and scans that doctors can use to find out what’s wrong and identify the cause of the problem. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Doctors use many tests to diagnose a tumor and find out if it is cancerous, and if so, if it has metastasized (spread). Some tests may also determine which treatments may be the most effective. For a tumor, a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the tumor has spread. This list describes options for diagnosing DIG, and not all tests listed will be used for every child. Your child’s doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:

  • Age and medical condition
  • Type of tumor suspected
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Previous test results

In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose DIG:

Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. A CT scan creates a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine. A computer then combines these images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan can also be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a contrast medium (a special dye) is injected into a vein or given orally (by mouth) to provide better detail.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body. A contrast medium may be injected into a patient’s vein or given orally to create a clearer picture.

Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. The sample removed during the biopsy is analyzed by a pathologist (a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease).

After these diagnostic tests are done, your child’s doctor will review all of the results with you. If the diagnosis is DIG, these results also help the doctor describe the tumor; this is called staging and grading.

The next section helps explain the different stages for this type of cancer. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Stages, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.  

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Stages and Grades

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about how doctors describe the growth and spread of DIG. This is called the stage and grade. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Staging and grading are the way of describing where a tumor is located, if it is likely to spread, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body. Doctors use diagnostic tests to determine this, so it may not be complete until all of the tests are finished. Knowing this information helps the doctor to decide what kind of treatment is best and can help predict a patient's prognosis (chance of recovery). There are different stage descriptions for different types of tumors.

There is no standard staging system for DIG; however, it is classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a grade I nervous system tumor. The four-stage (I to IV) WHO system is described below:

WHO grade I: Includes distinct, unconnected tumors that are less likely to spread and can often be successfully treated with only the surgical removal of the tumor. (This is the grade given to DIG by the WHO.)

WHO grade II: Includes tumors that are likely to spread and have low numbers of dividing tumor cells that may come back after treatment. Some tumor types tend to progress to a higher grade (become more aggressive).

WHO grade III: Includes tumors that have cancerous characteristics, such as dividing tumor cells, evidence of spreading, and undifferentiated cells (cells that look less like normal cells when viewed under a microscope).

WHO grade IV: Includes tumors that have actively dividing tumor cells, areas of tumor cell death, and generally grow rapidly both before and after surgery.

Recurrent: A recurrent tumor is a tumor that has come back after treatment. If there is a recurrence, the tumor may need to be graded again using the system above.

Information about the cancer’s stage will help the doctor recommend a treatment plan.  The next section helps explain the treatment options for this type of cancer. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Treatment Options, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.  

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Treatment Options

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different ways doctors use to treat children with DIG. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

In general, tumors in children are uncommon, so it can be hard for doctors to plan treatments unless they know what has been most effective in other children. That’s why more than 60% of children with cancer are treated as part of a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that compare standard treatments (the best proven treatments available) to newer treatments that may be more effective. Studying new treatments involves careful monitoring using scientific methods, and all participants are followed closely to track their health and progress.

To take advantage of these newer treatments, all children with a brain tumor should be treated at a specialized cancer center. Doctors at these centers have extensive experience in treating children and have access to the latest research. A doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer is called a pediatric oncologist. In many cases, a team of doctors works with a child and the family to provide care; this is called a multidisciplinary team. Pediatric cancer centers often have extra support services for children and their families, such as child life specialists, nutritionists, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, and counselors. Special activities and programs to help your child and family cope may also be available.

Descriptions of the most common treatment options for DIG are listed below. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and grade of the tumor, possible side effects, the family’s preferences, and your child’s overall health. Take time to learn about your child’s treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your child’s doctor and what your child can expect while receiving the treatment. Learn more about making treatment decisions.

Surgery

Surgery is the most common treatment for a child with DIG, and often it is the only treatment necessary. Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. A neurosurgeon is a doctor who specializes in removing a tumor in the brain or spine with surgery.

Surgery to the brain requires the removal of part of the skull, a procedure called a craniotomy. After the surgeon removes the tumor, the patient’s own bone will be used to cover the opening in the skull. There have been rapid advances in surgery for brain tumors, including the use of cortical mapping (which allows doctors to identify certain areas of the brain that control the senses, language, and motor skills) and better imaging tests to give surgeons more tools to plan and perform the surgery.

After surgery, the treatment plan is determined based on the following criteria:

  • The amount of tumor removed
  • Your child’s age
  • Whether the disease has spread

Sometimes, surgery cannot be performed because the tumor cannot be reached or is near a vital structure; these types of tumors are called inoperable. In these situations, the doctor will recommend treating the tumor in another way, such as chemotherapy (see below).

Side effects from surgery for DIG can vary; talk with your child’s doctor about possible short-term and long-term side effects with their doctor. Learn more about surgery.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill tumor cells, usually by stopping the cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach tumor cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a pediatric oncologist or a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating a tumor with medication. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs at the same time.

Chemotherapy may sometimes be used to slow or stop the growth of DIG when surgery is not an option. It also may be given before surgery to shrink the tumor or to destroy any tumor remaining after surgery. The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away once treatment is finished.

Learn more about chemotherapy and preparing for treatment. The medications used to treat a tumor are continually being evaluated. Talking with your child’s doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for your child, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Learn more about your child’s prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.

Getting care for symptoms and side effects

A tumor and its treatment often cause side effects. In addition to treatment to slow, stop, or eliminate the tumor, an important part of care is relieving a child’s symptoms and side effects. This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the child with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs.

Palliative care can help a child at any stage of illness. Children often receive treatment for the tumor and treatment to ease side effects at the same time. In fact, people who receive both often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and families report they are more satisfied with treatment.

Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, and other therapies. Your child may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to eliminate the tumor, such as surgery and chemotherapy. Talk with your child’s doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan.

Before treatment begins, talk with your child’s health care team about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and supportive care options. And during and after treatment, be sure to tell your child’s doctor or another health care team member if your child is experiencing a problem so it is addressed as quickly as possible. Learn more about palliative care.    

Recurrent DIG

A remission is when the tumor cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called “no evidence of disease” or NED. 

A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty leads to many survivors and their families feeling worried or anxious that the tumor will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it’s important to talk with the doctor about the possibility of the tumor returning. Understanding the risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help people feel more prepared if the tumor does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

If the tumor does return after the original treatment, it is called a recurrent tumor. DIG most often comes back in the same place as the original tumor (called a local recurrence).

When this occurs, a cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence, including whether the tumor’s grade has changed. After testing is done, you and your child’s doctor will talk about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the therapies described above (such as surgery and chemotherapy) but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your child’s doctor may also suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent tumor.

If your child is diagnosed with a recurrence, you and your family may experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with your child’s health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help your family cope. Learn more about dealing with a recurrence.

If treatment fails

Although treatment is successful for the majority of children with DIG, sometimes it is not. If a child’s tumor cannot be cured or controlled, this is called advanced or terminal disease. This diagnosis is stressful, and it may be difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your child’s doctor and health care team to express your family’s feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team is there to help, and many team members have special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families.

Parents or guardians are encouraged to think about where the child would be most comfortable: at home, in a home-like setting elsewhere, in the hospital, or in a hospice environment. Hospice care is a type of palliative care for people who are expected to live less than six months. It is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable alternative for many families. Some children may be happier if they can arrange to attend school part-time or keep up other activities and social connections. The child’s health care team can help parents or guardians decide on an appropriate level of activity. Making sure a child is physically comfortable and free from pain is extremely important as part of end-of-life care. Learn more about caring for a terminal ill child and advanced care planning.

The death of a child is an enormous tragedy, and families may need support to help them cope with the loss. Pediatric cancer centers often have professional staff and support groups to help with the process of grieving. Learn more on grieving the loss of a child.

The next section helps explain clinical trials, which are research studies. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select About Clinical Trials, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - About Clinical Trials

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn more about clinical trials, which are the main way that new medical approaches are tested to see how well they work. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to treat children with DIG. To make scientific advances, doctors create research studies involving volunteers, called clinical trials.

Many clinical trials are focused on new treatments, evaluating whether a new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the current (standard) treatment. These types of studies evaluate new drugs, different combinations of existing treatments, new approaches to radiation therapy or surgery, and new methods of treatment. Children who participate in clinical trials are often among the first to receive new treatments before they are widely available. However, there is no guarantee that the new treatment will be safe, effective, or better than a standard treatment.

There are also clinical trials that study new ways to ease symptoms and side effects during treatment and manage the late effects that may occur after treatment. Talk with your child’s doctor about clinical trials regarding side effects. In addition, there are ongoing studies about ways to prevent the disease.

People decide to participate in clinical trials for many reasons. For some people, a clinical trial is the best treatment option available. Because standard treatments are not perfect, people are often willing to face the added uncertainty of a clinical trial in the hope of a better result. Other people volunteer for clinical trials because they know that these studies are the only way to make progress in treating DIG. Even if they do not benefit directly from the clinical trial, their participation may benefit future patients with DIG.

Sometimes people have concerns that, by participating in a clinical trial, they may receive no treatment by being given a placebo or a “sugar pill.” The use of placebos in cancer clinical trials is rare. When a placebo is used in a study, it is done with the full knowledge of the participants. Find out more about placebos in cancer clinical trials.

In order to join a clinical trial, parents must participate in a process known as informed consent. During informed consent, the doctor should list all of the patient’s options, so that the person understands how the new treatment differs from the standard treatment. The doctor must also list all of the risks of the new treatment, which may or may not be different than the risks of standard treatment. Finally, the doctor must explain what will be required of each patient in order to participate in the clinical trial, including the number of doctor visits, tests, and the schedule of treatment.

For specific topics being studied for DIG, see the Latest Research section.

People who participate in a clinical trial may stop participating at any time for any personal or medical reason. This may include that the new treatment is not working or there are serious side effects. Clinical trials are also closely monitored by experts who watch for any problems with each study. It is important that people participating in a clinical trial talk with the doctor and researchers about who will be providing treatment and care during the clinical trial, after the clinical trial ends, and/or if they choose to leave the clinical trial before it ends.

Cancer.Net offers a lot of information about cancer clinical trials in other areas of the website, including a complete section on clinical trials and places to search for clinical trials for a specific type of tumor.

The next section helps explain the areas of research going on today about this type of cancer. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Latest Research, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Latest Research

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will read about the scientific research being done now to learn more about DIG and how to treat it. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Doctors are working to learn more about DIG, ways to prevent it, how to best treat it, and how to provide the best care to children diagnosed with this disease. The following areas of research may include new options for patients through clinical trials. Always talk with your child’s doctor about the diagnostic and treatment options best for your child.

Because DIG is quite rare, DIG-specific clinical trials may be hard to find. However, patients and doctors are encouraged to review clinical trials focusing on childhood brain tumors, which sometimes include patients with different types of tumors.

New treatments and imaging tests. Researchers are looking at new medications, different treatment combinations, and improved imaging techniques to treat childhood brain tumors.

Supportive care. Clinical trials are underway to find better ways of reducing symptoms and side effects of current DIG treatments in order to improve patients’ comfort and quality of life.

Looking for More about the Latest Research?

If you would like additional information about the latest areas of research regarding childhood cancer, explore these related items.

  • Visit ASCO’s CancerProgress.Net website to learn more about the historical pace of research for childhood cancer. Please note this link takes you to a separate ASCO website.

The next section addresses how to cope with the symptoms of the disease or the side effects of its treatment. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Coping with Side Effects, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Coping with Side Effects

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about steps to take to help cope with physical, social, and emotional side effects. This page includes several links outside of this guide to other sections of this website. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Fear of treatment side effects is common after a diagnosis of a brain tumor, but it may help to know that preventing and controlling side effects is a major focus of your child’s health care team. This is called palliative or supportive care, and it is an important part of the overall treatment plan, regardless of the stage of disease.

Common side effects from each treatment option for DIG are described in detail within the Treatment section. Learn more about the most common side effects of a tumor and different treatments, along with ways to prevent or control them. Side effects depend on a variety of factors, including the tumor’s stage, the length and dosage of treatment(s), and your child’s overall health.

Before treatment begins, talk with your child’s doctor about possible side effects of each type of treatment your child will be receiving. Ask which side effects are most likely to happen, when they are likely to occur, and what can be done to prevent or relieve them. And, ask about the level of caregiving your child may need during treatment and recovery, as family members and friends often play an important role in the care of a person with DIG. Learn more about caregiving.

In addition to physical side effects, there may be psychosocial (emotional and social) effects as well. Patients and their families are encouraged to share their feelings with a member of their health care team who can help with coping strategies. Learn more about the importance of addressing such needs, including concerns about managing the cost of your child’s medical care

During and after treatment, be sure to tell the health care team about the side effects your child experiences, even if you feel they are not serious. Sometimes, side effects can last beyond the treatment period, called a long-term side effect. A side effect that occurs months or years after treatment is called a late effect. Treatment of both types of effects is an important part of survivorship care. Learn more by reading the After Treatment section or talking with your child’s doctor.

The next section helps explain medical tests and check-ups needed after finishing cancer treatment. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select After Treatment, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide. 

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - After Treatment

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will read about your child’s medical care after treatment is finished and why this follow-up care is important. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

After treatment for DIG ends, talk with your child’s doctor about developing a follow-up care plan. This plan may include regular physical examinations and/or medical tests to monitor your child’s recovery for the coming months and years. All children treated for a brain tumor, including DIG, should have life-long, follow-up care.

After-treatment care recommendations are specific to each child, because there are many factors that can affect your child’s recovery from DIG, such as tumor location, whether the tumor could be removed, the need for and type of treatment after surgery, and your child’s age at the time of treatment. Follow-up MRI scans after surgery are often recommended to watch for signs of tumor recurrence or growth.

Based on the type of treatment your child received, the doctor will determine what examinations and tests are needed to check for long-term side effects and the possibility of secondary cancers. Your child’s doctor can recommend the necessary screening tests. Follow-up care should also address your child’s quality of life, including any developmental or emotional concerns. Learn more about childhood cancer survivorship.

The child’s family is encouraged to organize and keep a record of the child’s medical information. That way, as the child enters adulthood, he or she has a clear, written history of the diagnosis, the treatment given, and the doctor’s recommendations about the schedule for follow-up care. The doctor’s office can help you create this. This information will be valuable to doctors who care for your child during his or her lifetime. ASCO offers treatment summary forms to help keep track of the treatment your child received and develop a survivorship care plan once treatment is completed.

Children can also enhance the quality of their future by following established guidelines for good health into and through adulthood, including not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and participating in regular physical activity. Talk with your doctor about developing a plan that is best for your child’s needs. Learn more about the next steps to take in survivorship.

The next section offers a list of questions you may want to ask. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Questions to Ask the Doctor, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Questions to Ask the Doctor

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find some questions to ask the doctor or other members of the health care team, to help you better understand your child’s diagnosis, treatment plan, and overall care. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Talking often with the doctor is important to make informed decisions about your child’s health care. These suggested questions are a starting point to help you learn more about your child’s care and treatment. You are also encouraged to ask additional questions that are important to you. You may want to print this list and bring it to your child’s next appointment, or download Cancer.Net’s free mobile app for an e-list and other interactive tools to manage your child’s care.

  • What is the grade of the tumor? What does this mean?
  • Can you explain my child’s pathology report (laboratory test results) to me?
  • What is your familiarity with my child's tumor type and its treatment?
  • What treatment options are available?
  • What clinical trials are open to my child?
  • What treatment plan do you recommend? Why?
  • What is the goal of each treatment? Is it to eliminate the cancer, help my child feel better, or both?
  • What is the chance for success with each treatment option?
  • Who will be part of my child’s health care team, and what does each member do?
  • Who will be coordinating my child’s overall treatment and follow-up care?
  • What are the possible side effects of this treatment, both in the short term and the long term?
  • How will this treatment affect my child’s daily life?
  • Could this treatment affect my child’s ability to become pregnant or have children in the future? If so, should I talk with a fertility specialist before treatment begins?
  • If I’m worried about managing the costs related to my child’s medical care, who can help me with these concerns?
  • What follow-up tests will my child need, and how often will he or she need them?
  • What support services are available to my child? To my family?
  • Whom should I call for questions or problems?

The next section offers some more resources that may be helpful to you. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select Additional Resources, or you can select another section, to continue reading this guide.  

Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma - Childhood - Additional Resources

This section has been reviewed and approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 07/2013

ON THIS PAGE: You will find some helpful links to other areas of Cancer.Net that provide information about medical care and treatment. This is the final page of Cancer.Net’s Guide to Childhood Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma. To go back and review other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Cancer.Net includes many other sections about the medical and emotional aspects of a tumor, both for the person diagnosed and their family members and friends. This website is meant to be a resource for you and your loved ones from the time of diagnosis, through treatment, and beyond. Here are a few sections that may get you started in exploring the rest of Cancer.Net:

This is the end of Cancer.Net’s Guide to Childhood Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma. Use the menu on the side of your screen to select another section to continue reading this guide.