Eye Cancer: Statistics

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 08/2015

ON THIS PAGE: You will find information about how many people are diagnosed with this type of cancer each year. You will also learn some general information on surviving the disease. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

Cancer that starts in the eye is called primary eye cancer. It is an uncommon disease. Cancer that has spread to the eye from another place in the body (secondary eye cancer) is more common than primary eye cancer. The statistics below are about primary eye cancer.

This year, an estimated 2,810 adults (1,510 men and 1,300 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with primary intraocular cancer.

Most new cases of primary intraocular cancer this year will be melanoma. Although the number of new diagnoses and deaths from skin melanoma has been increasing during the past 30 years, the number of new intraocular melanoma cases has remained constant during this time. Lymphoma is the second most common type of primary intraocular cancer.

It is estimated that 280 deaths (150 men and 130 women) from primary intraocular cancer will occur this year.

The 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 5-year survival rate for people with eye cancer depends on the size and location of the tumor and the type of cancer diagnosed. Overall, 3 out of 4 people with eye melanoma survive for at least 5 years.

When melanoma does not spread outside the eye, the 5-year relative survival rate is about 80%. If the melanoma has spread to distant parts of the body, the 5-year relative survival rate is about 15%.

Iris melanoma is rare and does not usually spread. The 5-year relative survival rate for people with iris melanoma is the highest of the different types.

Choroidal melanoma is the most common type of intraocular melanoma.

  • The 5-year relative survival rate for people with small choroidal melanoma is 84%.
  • The 5-year relative survival rate for people with medium choroidal melanoma is 68%.
  • The 5-year relative survival rate for people with large choroidal melanoma is 47%.

Ciliary body melanoma is rare. The 5-year relative survival rates are hard to determine for this type of melanoma, although it generally has a poorer prognosis (chance of recovery) than choroidal melanoma because it is typically diagnosed at a more advanced stage.

Eye lymphoma. Because eye lymphoma is very uncommon, accurate survival statistics are not available. However, in 1 study involving people diagnosed with lymphoma that was only located in the eye, about half (50%) were still alive 5 years after being diagnosed. However, many people are diagnosed with eye lymphoma after it has already spread to the brain, which has a worse prognosis.

It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of cancer are an estimate. The estimate comes from data based on thousands of people with this cancer in the United States each year. So, your own risk may be different. Doctors cannot say for sure how long anyone will live with eye cancer. Also, experts measure the survival statistics every 5 years. This means that the estimate may not show the results of better diagnosis or treatment available for less than 5 years. Learn more about understanding statistics.

Statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's (ACS) publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2016; the National Cancer Institute; Houle, Virginie, et al. “AIRP Best Cases in Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation: Choroidal Melanoma,” RadioGraphics 2011 31: 1231-1236, http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/31/5/1231.fulland the ACS website.

The next section in this guide is Medical Illustrations. It offers drawings of body parts often affected by this disease. Or, use the menu on the left side of your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide.