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A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing a tumor. Although risk factors often influence the development of a tumor, most do not directly cause a tumor. Some people with several risk factors never develop a tumor, while others with no known risk factors do.
The following factors may raise a person’s risk of developing an extracranial, gonadal germ cell tumor:
Cryptorchidism. If a boy has an undescended testicle, he has a higher risk of testicular cancer.
Turner syndrome. Turner syndrome is a genetic condition in which a girl is born with a missing X chromosome. Girls with this condition have a higher risk of developing a gonadoblastoma.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Androgen insensitivity syndrome is when a person who is genetically male (has one X and one Y chromosome) is resistant to male hormones called androgens. A person with this syndrome has a higher risk of developing a gonadoblastoma or other germ cell tumors.
The following factor may raise a person’s risk of developing an extracranial, extragonadal germ cell tumor:
Klinefelter’s syndrome. Men with this genetic condition are born with an extra X chromosome. Klinefelter’s syndrome is connected to a higher risk of a germ cell tumor in the chest.