Lymphoma - Hodgkin: Stages

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 09/2016

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about how doctors describe the extent of a cancer’s growth or spread. This is called the stage. You will also discover what prognostic factors help doctors predict how well treatment will work. To see other pages, use the menu.

Staging helps to describe where the Hodgkin lymphoma is located, if or where it has spread, and whether it is affecting other parts of the body.

Doctors use diagnostic tests to find out the cancer’s stage, so staging may not be complete until all tests are finished. Knowing the stage helps the doctor to decide what kind of treatment is best and can help predict a patient’s prognosis, which is the chance of recovery. There are different stage descriptions for different types of cancer.

When staging Hodgkin lymphoma, doctors evaluate the following:

  • The number of cancerous lymph node areas

  • Whether the cancerous lymph nodes are localized or generalized. Localized means they are located only in 1 area of the body. Generalized means they are located in many areas of the body

  • Whether the cancerous lymph nodes are on 1 or both sides of the diaphragm, the thin muscle under the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen

  • Whether the disease has spread to the bone marrow, spleen, or extralymphatic organs (organs outside the lymphatic system; noted using an “E” below), such as the liver, lungs, or bone

Lymphoma stage groupings

The stage of lymphoma describes the extent of the spread of the tumor, using the terms stage I through IV (1 through 4). As explained in the Symptoms and Signs section, each stage may also be further divided into “A” and “B” categories, based on whether or not the patient is experiencing specific symptoms.

Stage I: The cancer is found in 1 lymph node region.

Stage II: Either of the following conditions applies:

  • The cancer is in 2 or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (stage II).

  • The cancer involves 1 organ and its regional lymph nodes (lymph nodes located near the site of the lymphoma), with or without cancer in other lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm (stage IIE).

Stage III: There is cancer in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm, meaning above and below it (stage III). In addition, an extralymphatic organ may be involved (stage IIIE), or the spleen (using the letter “S,” stage IIIS), or both (stage IIIES).

Stage IV: The lymphoma has spread to organs beyond the lymph nodes. Common places that Hodgkin lymphoma usually spreads to include the liver, bone marrow, or lungs.

Recurrent: Recurrent lymphoma is lymphoma that has come back after treatment. Lymphoma may return in the area where it first started or in another part of the body. Recurrence may occur at any time, including shortly after the first treatment or years later. If the lymphoma does return, there will be another round of tests to learn about the extent of the recurrence. These tests and scans are often similar to those done at the time of the original diagnosis.

Prognostic factors

In addition to stage, doctors use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how well this treatment will work. For patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, several factors can predict whether the disease will return and which treatments will be successful. A patient may be described as having high-risk disease or low-risk disease based on how many of the following prognostic factors there are.

Factors that are considered less favorable and lead to a poorer prognosis include:

  • Low blood albumin (a type of protein) levels, defined as less than 4 g/L

  • Low hemoglobin (red blood cell count), defined as less than 10.5 g/dL

  • Being male

  • Age 45 and older

  • Stage IV disease

  • White blood cell count that is more than 15,000 per cubic millimeter (mm3)

  • Lymphocyte count that is less than 600 per mm3, less than 8% of the total white blood cell count, or both

Other prognostic factors that are considered, especially for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, include:

  • A higher ESR (described in the Diagnosis section) is associated with a poorer prognosis.

  • People with lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma, and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma have a better prognosis, compared with other subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • A large mediastinal mass is a large lymph node mass in the center of the chest that is larger than 10 centimeters (cm). It is associated with a poorer prognosis. Small mediastinal masses are not associated with a poorer prognosis.

  • Having a high number of lymph node sites involved is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Used with permission of the AJCC, Chicago, Illinois. The original source for this material is the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Seventh Edition, published by Springer-Verlag New York, www.cancerstaging.org

Information about the lymphoma’s stage will help the doctor recommend a specific treatment plan. The next section in this guide is Treatment Options. Or, use the menu to choose another section to continue reading this guide.