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A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing a disease. Although risk factors often influence the development of MDS, most do not directly cause MDS. Some people with several risk factors never develop MDS, while others with no known risk factors do. However, knowing your risk factors and talking about them with your doctor may help you make more informed lifestyle and health care choices.
The following factors may raise a person’s risk of developing MDS:
Age. MDS occurs most often in people older than 60 and is less common in younger people. MDS is rare in children.
Gender. Men develop MDS more often than women.
Exposure to environmental/occupational hazards. Long-term exposure to benzene or other toxins, such as tobacco smoke and insecticides, may increase the risk of developing MDS.
Previous chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Approximately 20% of people who develop MDS previously received chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This type of MDS is called secondary MDS (see Subtypes).
Genetics. There are no known direct genetic risk factors associated with MDS. An increased risk of developing MDS is rarely inherited (passed from generation to generation in a family).