ON THIS PAGE: You will find a list of the common tests, procedures, and scans that doctors can use to find out what’s wrong and identify the cause of the problem. To see other pages in this guide, use the colored boxes on the right side of your screen, or click “Next” at the bottom.
Doctors use many tests to diagnose cancer and find out if it has metastasized. Some tests may also determine which treatments may be the most effective. For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis of cancer. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the cancer has spread. This list describes options for diagnosing this type of cancer, and not all tests listed will be used for every person. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:
- Age and medical condition
- Type of cancer suspected
- Signs and symptoms
- Previous test results
In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose kidney cancer:
Blood and urine tests . A blood test to check the number of red blood cells and a urine test to find blood, bacteria, or cancer cells may be done. These tests may suggest that kidney cancer is present but cannot make a definite diagnosis.
Biopsy . A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. The sample removed during the biopsy is analyzed by a pathologist. Then the pathologist writes a pathology report  (laboratory test results) that becomes a permanent part of the person’s medical record.
Doctors must have a pathology report before they use systemic therapy (therapies that affect the entire body) to treat kidney cancer. The pathology report identifies the type of cell involved in the kidney cancer (see the Overview  for a list), which is important in planning treatment.
The type of biopsy performed depends on the location of the cancer. A separate biopsy may not be needed if the cancer is found on a CT scan (see below) and removal of the kidney is recommended. If surgery is recommended based on the results of other medical tests, such as a CT scan, many doctors will examine the tumor after it is removed during surgery, rather than in a separate procedure beforehand. The patient should carefully discuss the reasoning for a recommended biopsy option with his or her doctor.
X-ray. An x-ray is a way to create a picture of the structures inside of the body, using a small amount of radiation.
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP). A dye is injected into the patient’s bloodstream to highlight the kidney, urethra, and bladder when an x-ray is taken. The picture produced can show changes in these organs and in the nearby lymph nodes.
Bone scan . A bone scan uses a radioactive tracer to look at the inside of the bones. The tracer is injected into a patient’s vein. It collects in areas of the bone and is detected by a special camera. Healthy bone appears gray to the camera, and areas of injury, such as those caused by cancer or a fracture (break), appear dark.
Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan . A CT scan creates a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body with an x-ray machine. A computer then combines these images into a detailed, cross-sectional view that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan can also be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a contrast medium (a special dye) is injected into a patient’s vein or given orally (by mouth) to provide better detail.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) . An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body. A contrast medium may be injected into a patient’s vein or given orally to create a clearer picture. 
Cystoscopy/nephro-ureteroscopy . Rarely, special tests called a cystoscopy and nephro-ureteroscopy may be done for renal pelvic cancer. They are not used for renal cell carcinoma. During these procedures, the patient is sedated while a tiny, lighted tube is inserted into the bladder through the urethra and up into the kidney. The device can remove samples of cells and, in some cases, small tumors.
After these diagnostic tests are done, your doctor will review all of the results with you. If the diagnosis is cancer, these results also help the doctor describe the cancer; this is called staging.
Choose “Next” (below, right) to continue reading this guide to learn about the different stages for this type of cancer. Or, use the colored boxes located on the right side of your screen to visit any section.