ON THIS PAGE: You will learn more about clinical trials, which are the main way that new medical approaches are tested to see how well they work. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.
What are clinical trials?
Doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to care for children with a Wilms tumor. To make scientific advances, doctors create research studies involving volunteers, called clinical trials. Wilms tumor is one of the best examples of the impact of clinical trials on finding the best treatment approaches to improve outcomes and avoid side effects.
Many clinical trials are focused on new treatments, evaluating whether a new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the current (standard) treatment. These types of studies evaluate new drugs, different combinations of existing treatments, new approaches to radiation therapy or surgery, and new methods of treatment. Children who participate in clinical trials are often among the first to receive new treatments before they are widely available. However, there is no guarantee that the new treatment will be safe, effective, or better than a standard treatment.
There are also clinical trials that study new ways to ease symptoms and side effects during treatment and managing the late effects that may occur after treatment. Talk with your child’s doctor about clinical trials regarding side effects.
Deciding to join a clinical trial
Parents and children decide to participate in clinical trials for many reasons. For some, a clinical trial is the best treatment option available. Because standard treatments are not perfect, people are often willing to face the added uncertainty of a clinical trial in the hope of a better result. Other parents and children volunteer for clinical trials because they know that these studies are the only way to make progress in treating Wilms tumor. Even if your child does not benefit directly from the clinical trial, his or her participation may benefit future children with a Wilms tumor.
Sometimes people have concerns that, in a clinical trial, their child may receive no treatment by being given a placebo or a “sugar pill.” The use of placebos in cancer clinical trials in this way is rare overall and not done at all in childhood cancer research. Find out more about placebos in cancer clinical trials. 
Patient safety and informed consent
To join a clinical trial, parents and children must participate in a process known as informed consent. During informed consent, the doctor should list all of the child’s options so both parents and children understand how the new treatment differs from the standard treatment. The doctor must also list all of the risks of the new treatment, which may or may not be different from the risks of standard treatment. Finally, the doctor must explain what will be required of each parent and child in order to participate in the clinical trial, including the number of doctor visits, tests, and the schedule of treatment.
Patients who participate in a clinical trial may stop participating at any time for any personal or medical reason. This may include that the new treatment is not working or there are serious side effects. Clinical trials are also closely monitored by experts who watch for any problems with each study. It is important that parents of patients participating in a clinical trial talk with their child’s doctor and researchers about who will be providing their treatment and care during the clinical trial, after the clinical trial ends, and/or if the patient chooses to leave the clinical trial before it ends.
Finding a clinical trial
Research through clinical trials is ongoing for all types of cancer. For specific topics being studied for Wilms tumor, learn more in the Latest Research  section. In particular, the Children’s Oncology Group  conducts clinical trials for most types of childhood cancer, including Wilms tumor.
Cancer.Net offers a lot of information about cancer clinical trials in other areas of the website, including a complete section on clinical trials  and places to search for clinical trials for a specific type of cancer .
In addition, this website offers free access to a video-based educational program  about cancer clinical trials, located outside of this guide.
The next section in this guide is Latest Research , and it explains areas of scientific research currently going on for this type of tumor. Or, use the menu on the side of your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide.