ON THIS PAGE: You will find a list of common tests, procedures, and scans that doctors use to find the cause of the medical problem. Use the menu to see other pages.
Doctors use many tests to find, or diagnose, cancer. They also do tests to learn if cancer has spread to another part of the body from where it started. If this happens, it is called metastasis. For example, imaging tests can show if the cancer has spread. Imaging tests show pictures of the inside of the body. Doctors may also do tests to learn which treatments could work best.
For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only sure way for the doctor to know if an area of the body has cancer. In a biopsy, the doctor takes a small sample of tissue for testing in a laboratory. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis.
This section describes options for diagnosing appendix cancer. Not all tests listed will be used for every person. Your doctor may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:
The type of cancer suspected
Your signs and symptoms
Your age and general condition
The results of earlier medical tests
In addition to a physical exam, the following tests may be used to diagnose appendix cancer:
- Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. Other tests can suggest that cancer is present, but only a biopsy can make a definite diagnosis. A pathologist then analyzes the sample(s). A pathologist is a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease.
However, most often, appendix cancer is found unexpectedly during or after abdominal surgery for another reason. If cancer is suspected at the time of surgery, the doctor will remove a portion of the colon and surrounding tissue (called a margin) for examination. Often, a patient will have an appendectomy, which is the surgical removal of the appendix. This is usually done for what is first thought to be appendicitis, and the cancer is diagnosed after the pathologist has processed and reviewed the tissue under the microscope. In that case, another surgery may be recommended to remove another margin of tissue around the area where the tumor began, depending on the type of appendix cancer (such as a neuroendocrine or adenocarcinoma tumor) and size of tumor (if it is a neuroendocrine tumor). Appendix cancer may also be discovered by accident when a CT scan is done for another reason.
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. A CT scan takes pictures of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. A computer combines these pictures into a detailed, 3-dimensional (3D) image that shows any abnormalities or tumors. A CT scan can be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes, a special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to provide better detail on the image. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill or liquid to swallow.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses magnetic fields, not x-rays, to produce detailed images of the body. MRI can be used to measure the tumor’s size. A special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to create a clearer picture. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill to swallow.
- Ultrasound. An ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of the internal organs.
- Radionuclide scanning (OctreoScan or 68Ga-DOTATATE PET scan). These tests are used for neuroendocrine tumors and not other types of appendix cancers. A small amount of a radioactive, hormone-like substance that is attracted to a neuroendocrine tumor is injected into a vein. A special camera is then used to show where the radioactive substance accumulates. This procedure is useful in detecting spread of a neuroendocrine tumor.
After diagnostic tests are done, your doctor will review all of the results with you. If the diagnosis is appendix cancer, these results also help the doctor describe the cancer. This is called staging.
The next section in this guide is Stages and Grades. It explains the system doctors use to describe the extent of the disease. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.