Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma): Types of Treatment

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 01/2019

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different treatments doctors use for people with bile duct cancer. Use the menu to see other pages.

This section explains the types of treatments that are the standard of care for bile duct cancer. “Standard of care” means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, you are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Clinical trials are an option to consider for treatment and care for all stages of cancer. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. Learn more about clinical trials in the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections of this guide.

Treatment overview

In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as physician assistants, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.

Descriptions of common types of treatments used for bile duct cancer are listed below. Your care plan also includes treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.

Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including:

  • The type and stage of cancer

  • Possible side effects

  • The patient’s preferences and overall health

Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called “shared decision making.” Shared decision making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your care. Shared decision making is particularly important for bile duct cancer because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.


Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue, called a margin, during an operation. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery. Surgery to treat bile duct cancer may also be done by hepatobiliary surgeons, who have special training in treating the liver and bile ducts.

The location and sensitivity of the bile duct area make surgery difficult. And, the surgery’s effectiveness may be limited by the tumor's size and where it has spread (see the Stages section). For instance, surgery cannot completely remove metastatic cancer, and additional treatment is necessary. Talk with your surgeon about what to expect with your specific surgery.

Common surgical treatment options for bile duct cancer include:

  • Surgical removal of the bile duct. The surgeon removes the entire organ. It is a treatment option if the tumor has not spread beyond the bile duct. The surgery may also include removal of lymph nodes to check for cancer. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection.

  • Partial hepatectomy. If the cancer is near the liver, the surgeon will remove part of the liver. The remaining section of liver takes over the functions of the entire liver. In some cases, it grows back to its normal size within a few weeks.

  • Whipple procedure. The Whipple procedure is an extensive type of surgery that may be recommended if the cancer is near the pancreas. The surgeon removes part or all of the pancreas and part of the small intestine, bile duct, and stomach. The surgeon then reconnects the digestive tract and biliary system, which includes the bile ducts and gallbladder. To maintain the flow of bile, the remaining part of the bile duct is connected to the small intestine. About 5% to 10% of people do not survive this complicated operation. Meanwhile, 25% to 45% have serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, or leaking of bile or pancreatic juices. An experienced surgeon should always perform this procedure.

  • Liver transplantation. The surgeon completely removes the liver and bile ducts. Surgery to remove the liver is called a total hepatectomy. The surgeon then transplants a donor liver. However, bile duct cancer tends to recur very quickly after transplantation. As a result, this procedure is rarely used.

Before surgery, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects from the specific surgery you will have. Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. When radiation therapy is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. Internal radiation therapy may be used occasionally for bile duct cancer.

Some cancer centers may use a specific type of radiation therapy called radioembolization. During this treatment, a doctor places radioactive beads into the artery that supplies the tumor with blood. The beads deliver radiation directly into the tumor when they become trapped in the small blood vessels of the tumor.

Radiation therapy can be used for treatment or to control the symptoms and pain of advanced disease. It may also be combined with chemotherapy, a treatment called chemoradiotherapy. In some situations, chemoradiotherapy may be given after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells. Talk with your health care team about whether this is a good treatment option for you. Learn more about ASCO's recommendations for treating bile duct cancer with chemoradiotherapy on a separate website.

Side effects from radiation therapy may include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished. Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy.


Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication.

Systemic chemotherapy gets into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Common ways to give chemotherapy include an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally).

A chemotherapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period. A patient may receive 1 drug at a time or combinations of different drugs given at the same time.

Researchers are working to improve chemotherapy by studying new drugs or new combinations of drugs through clinical trials. Patients with bile duct cancer may receive chemotherapy by participating in a clinical trial.

Chemotherapy may be used before surgery to shrink the tumor or when surgery is not an option. Research has suggested that the combination of cisplatin (Platinol) and gemcitabine (Gemzar) can lengthen the lives of patients who have bile duct cancer that cannot be removed by surgery.

Chemotherapy should be given after surgery to help prevent a recurrence. ASCO recommends capecitabine (Xeloda) for 6 months after surgery. Additionally, people with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma may also receive chemoradiotherapy after surgery and capecitabine to destroy remaining cancer cells when there is a positive margin that can be seen with a microscope. A positive margin means that there are cancer cells around the area where the tumor was removed (see Radiation Therapy, above, for more on the ASCO recommendations).

Other drugs that have been used to treat bile duct cancer include fluorouracil (5-FU, Adrucil), and paclitaxel (Taxol). However, bile duct cancers are resistant to many chemotherapy types, which makes clinical trials much more important for treating this disease.

Chemotherapy may also be given after surgery to help prevent a recurrence. But researchers are still testing how well this approach works in clinical trials.

The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished.

Learn more about the basics of chemotherapy. The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. It is also important to let your doctor know if you are taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements. Herbs, supplements, and other drugs can interact with cancer medications. Learn more about your prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.

Physical, emotional, and social effects of cancer

Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.

Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.

Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options.

During treatment, your health care team may ask you to answer questions about your symptoms and side effects and to describe each problem. Be sure to tell the health care team if you are experiencing a problem. This helps the health care team treat any symptoms and side effects as quickly as possible. It can also help prevent more serious problems in the future.

Learn more about the importance of tracking side effects in another part of this guide. Learn more about palliative care in a separate section of this website.

Stent placement and surgical bypass

In some cases, surgery cannot completely remove the tumor. But it can still help relieve symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life.

In this situation, a surgeon may be able to bypass the blocked area. This involves connecting a part of the bile duct located before the blockage to a part of the small intestine located beyond the blockage. During this procedure, the surgeon may insert a plastic or metal tube into the bile duct to keep it open. This tube is called a stent.

In addition, a plastic or metal stent may be used to pass through the blockage during the ERCP procedure or a procedure similar to PTC (learn more in the Diagnosis section). These procedures do not remove the tumor. However, they can relieve side effects. People often experience long periods when all symptoms disappear and their quality of life improves.

For both of these procedures, the doctor may insert the stent internally. Sometimes, this is not possible. In those cases, a tube passes through the liver to redirect the bile outside the body into a bag. The bag needs to be changed regularly. Some doctors suggest that these patients receive long-term antibiotics to protect against infection.

Metastatic bile duct cancer

If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer. If this happens, it is a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience in treating it. Doctors can have different opinions about the best standard treatment plan. Clinical trials might also be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan.

Your treatment plan may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Palliative care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects.

For most people, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer is very stressful and, at times, difficult to bear. You and your family are encouraged to talk about the way they are feeling with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group.

Remission and the chance of recurrence

A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED.

A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).

When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent cancer. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.

People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.

If treatment does not work

Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.

This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.

People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.

After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.

The next section in this guide is About Clinical Trials. It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for people with cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.