ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different treatments doctors use for people with a carcinoid tumor. Use the menu to see other pages.
This section tells you the treatments that are the standard of care for this type of cancer. “Standard of care” means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, patients are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. To learn more about clinical trials, see the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections.
In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as physician assistants, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.
Descriptions of the most common treatment options for a carcinoid tumor are listed below, followed by an outline of treatment options by stage for a GI carcinoid tumor. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care. Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. Learn more about making treatment decisions.
Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in cancer surgery. Completely removing the entire tumor is the standard treatment when possible. Many carcinoid tumors are successfully treated with surgery alone. The surgeon will usually remove some tissue surrounding the tumor, called a margin, in hopes of leaving no traces of cancer found in the body.
When completely removing the tumor is not possible, debulking surgery is often recommended. Debulking surgery removes as much of the tumor as possible and may provide some relief from symptoms.
People who have developed carcinoid syndrome are at risk of experiencing a carcinoid crisis during surgery (see Signs and Symptoms). To avoid major complications from a carcinoid crisis, the anesthesiology team must be fully aware of this risk before surgery so they can have octreotide on hand to control the symptoms.
Before surgery, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects from the specific surgery you will have. Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery.
Surgical options for a GI carcinoid tumor
Local excision. During this operation, the surgeon removes the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue. Most localized tumors can be surgically removed through a skin incision, but a rectal carcinoid tumor may be removed through the anus. Other GI carcinoid tumors can sometimes be removed using an endoscope (see Diagnosis).
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)/electro-fulguration. RFA destroys a tumor by heating it with an electric current. It is sometimes recommended for rectal carcinoid tumors.
Segmental colon resection or hemicolectomy. This surgery removes one-third to one-half of the colon, including nearby blood vessels and lymph nodes.
Low anterior resection. During this surgery, a portion of the upper part of the rectum is removed.
Abdominoperineal resection. This surgery is used for a large tumor located in the lower part of the rectum. During the operation, the surgeon removes the anus, rectum, and part of the colon. After surgery, a colostomy may be created to carry waste out of the body. A colostomy is an opening from the colon to the outside of the body.
Liver transplantation. Liver transplantation is rarely used as a treatment for carcinoid tumor, but it may help younger patients with a carcinoid tumor that began in the liver.
Surgical options for a lung carcinoid tumor
Sleeve resection. The tumor is surgically removed, along with parts of the airway above and below the tumor. The airway is then reconnected.
Wedge resection. During this surgery, a small, wedge-shaped piece of the lung is removed. This surgery is used if the tumor is very small.
Lobectomy. During this surgery, an entire lobe of a lung is removed. This surgery is often used if a sleeve resection is not possible because of the size and/or location of the tumor. A lobectomy is also used if a carcinoid tumor is found at the edge of the lung, away from large airways.
Pneumonectomy. During this operation, an entire lung is removed.
Lymph node dissection. Removal of the lymph nodes near the lungs is also common during surgery for a lung carcinoid tumor. Removing the lymph nodes reduces the risk of the carcinoid tumor spreading to other organs.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist.
The most common type of radiation treatment for a carcinoid tumor is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. It is most often used to relieve symptoms, such as pain, caused by cancer that has spread to the bone as part of palliative care (see “Getting care for symptoms and side effects” below).
A second type of radiation treatment is internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. Internal radiation therapy uses tiny pellets or rods containing radioactive materials that are surgically implanted in or near the site of the tumor. The implant is left in place for several days while the patient stays in the hospital.
Patients receiving radiation therapy may experience fatigue during treatment, and the treated area may become red and dry. Radiation therapy to the chest or neck may cause a dry, sore throat or a dry cough. Some patients have shortness of breath during radiation therapy. Most side effects go away after the treatment is finished. Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by ending the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medications.
Systemic chemotherapy gets into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Common ways to give chemotherapy include an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally). A chemotherapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive 1 drug at a time or combinations of different drugs given at the same time.
Chemotherapy for a carcinoid tumor is most often used when the tumor has spread to other organs or is causing severe symptoms. A carcinoid tumor usually does not respond to chemotherapy alone, and other treatments may be necessary.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished.
Learn more about the basics of chemotherapy and preparing for treatment. The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Learn more about your prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. Immunotherapy, such as alpha-interferon and octreotide, may shrink a carcinoid tumor or stop its growth. These treatments work by changing the surface proteins of cancer cells and by slowing their growth. Biologic therapies are also used to treat symptoms by controlling the production of hormones. Different types of immunotherapy can cause different side effects. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for the immunotherapy recommended for you. Learn more about the basics of immunotherapy.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to healthy cells.
Recent studies show that not all tumors have the same targets. To find the most effective treatment, your doctor may run tests to identify the genes, proteins, and other factors in your tumor. This helps doctors better match each patient with the most effective treatment whenever possible. In addition, many research studies are taking place now to find out more about specific molecular targets and new treatments directed at them. Learn more about the basics of targeted treatments.
For carcinoid tumors, targeted therapies being researched in clinical trials include drugs that interfere with new blood vessel formation or with specific survival pathways of cancer cells. Research continues on these and other approaches. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for a specific medication and how they can be managed.
Getting care for symptoms and side effects
Cancer and its treatment often cause side effects. In addition to treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer, an important part of cancer care is relieving a person’s symptoms and side effects. This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the patient with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs.
Palliative care is any treatment that focuses on reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive palliative care. It works best when palliative care is started as early as needed in the cancer treatment process. People often receive treatment for the cancer at the same time that they receive treatment to ease side effects. In fact, patients who receive both at the same time often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to eliminate the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in your treatment plan.
For some people, such as those with lung disease, heart disease, or other specific medical conditions, surgery cannot successfully treat the cancer. In these cases, palliative surgery to relieve symptoms may be helpful. This may include removing most of the tumor through a bronchoscope or vaporizing large portions of the tumor with a laser. Palliative surgery is often used together with radiation therapy. These treatments can help relieve symptoms caused by blocked airways.
Before treatment begins, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects of your specific treatment plan and palliative care options. During and after treatment, be sure to tell your doctor or another health care team member if you are experiencing a problem so it can be addressed as quickly as possible. Learn more about palliative care.
Treatment of a GI carcinoid tumor by stage
Stomach. A localized carcinoid tumor of the stomach can often be completely removed through an endoscope. A tumor larger than 2 centimeters (cm) is removed with a margin of surrounding stomach tissue through an incision, or cut, in the abdomen. For patients whose carcinoid tumor is stimulated by gastrin, a hormone released by cells of the antrum of the stomach (the part next to the small intestine), the removal of the antrum may be recommended.
Small intestine. Surgery to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue is the most common treatment for a carcinoid tumor smaller than 1 cm located in the small intestine. Surgery for a larger tumor involves removing more surrounding tissue and some surrounding blood vessels and lymph nodes.
Large intestine. The most common treatment for a tumor smaller than 2 cm is the surgical removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue, often done through a colonoscope (see Diagnosis). If the tumor is larger than 2 cm, surgery most often involves an incision through the skin.
Appendix. An appendectomy is usually the only treatment needed for a carcinoid tumor smaller than 1.5 cm. For a tumor larger than 2 cm, the removal of about one-third of the colon next to the appendix and nearby blood vessels and lymph nodes is often needed.
Rectum. A rectal carcinoid tumor smaller than 1 cm is treated with RFA (see “Surgery” above). A tumor larger than 2 cm is more likely to grow and spread quickly. Larger tumors are removed using the same procedure that is used for rectal cancer. This involves removing some healthy colorectal tissue and some of the nearby lymph nodes.
Whenever possible, the tumor and areas of spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes are removed using surgery. If this is not possible, surgery can help relieve symptoms, such as intestinal blockage.
If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer. If this happens, it is a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience in treating it. Doctors can have different opinions about the best standard treatment plan. Also, clinical trials might be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan.
Your treatment plan may include a combination of the types of treatment described above. Surgery is used to relieve symptoms rather than eliminate the cancer at this stage. If distant metastases are not causing symptoms, surgery may not be needed. If the person develops carcinoid syndrome, surgery to remove as much cancer as possible is often recommended. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be offered to help relieve symptoms.
If cancer has spread to the liver, the following treatments may be used:
Liver resection. This operation removes cancer that has spread to the liver. The goal of this surgery is not to eliminate the cancer, but it often helps relieve or reduce the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
Intratumoral ethanol injection. During this procedure, a CT scan is used to guide a needle into the areas of tumor spread. These areas are then destroyed by injecting concentrated alcohol through the needle. Liquid nitrogen can also be used to cool the needle and destroy the cells by freezing. These injections are particularly useful if traditional surgical procedures are difficult or impossible to perform.
Hepatic artery occlusion or embolization. These procedures block the tumor’s blood supply by sealing off the blood vessels leading to the tumor. The effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with hepatic artery embolization is still being studied. This treatment can cause severe side effects and is only considered when other treatment options are not working.
Participation in clinical trials is encouraged. Palliative care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects.
For most patients, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer is very stressful and, at times, difficult to bear. Patients and their families are encouraged to talk about the way they are feeling with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group.
Remission and the chance of recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it’s important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer does return after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about your treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent tumor. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. Patients are encouraged to talk with their health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help them cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
If treatment doesn’t work
Recovery from a carcinoid tumor is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your doctor and health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team is there to help, and many team members have special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families. Making sure a person is physically comfortable and free from pain is extremely important.
Patients who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider a type of palliative care called hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
The next section in this guide is About Clinical Trials. It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for people with a carcinoid tumor. You may use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.