Craniopharyngioma - Childhood: Introduction

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 10/2022

ON THIS PAGE: You will find some basic information about this disease and the parts of the body it may affect. This is the first page of Cancer.Net’s Guide to Childhood Craniopharyngioma. Use the menu to see other pages. Think of that menu as a roadmap for this entire guide.

Craniopharyngioma is a type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor. A CNS tumor may be either cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it is usually fast-growing and can spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor is usually slower-growing and will not spread. Craniopharyngioma is considered a benign tumor, which means that it is usually slow-growing and very unlikely to spread.

About the central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord make up the CNS, where all vital functions of the body are controlled. The brain is the center of thought, memory, and emotion. It controls the 5 senses, which are smell, touch, taste, hearing, and sight. It also controls movement and other basic body functions, including consciousness, heartbeat, circulation, and breathing. The spinal cord is made up of nerves that carry information from the body to the brain and from the brain to the body.

Craniopharyngioma usually occurs in a part of the brain called the suprasellar region. This region is the area of the brain just above the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is an important gland and is often called the “master endocrine gland” because it produces several different hormones that regulate many body functions. The optic nerves and a gland called the hypothalamus are located nearby. The hypothalamus regulates hunger, body temperature, thirst, sleep, fatigue, and other behaviors.

About craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor that may be present for many years before it is found. It may be solid and/or cystic. A cystic tumor has a closed pouch or sac that contains fluid made by the tumor. The solid part often contains areas of calcium that can easily be seen on a computed tomography (CT) scan (see Diagnosis). The cystic part of the tumor often contains very high amounts of protein.

This section covers craniopharyngioma that occurs in children. For information about craniopharyngioma in adults, read the guide to adult brain tumors.

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The next section in this guide is Statistics. It helps explain the number of children who are diagnosed with craniopharyngioma and general survival rates. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.