Leukemia - Acute Myeloid - AML - Childhood: Subtypes

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 08/2019

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about how doctors determine the subtype of AML. Use the menu to see other pages.

AML blasts are classified based on how much they look like healthy immature bone marrow blast cells, and more recently, on the molecular and genetic testing of the leukemia cells (see the Diagnosis section). In the recent past, AML was divided into 8 major subtypes according to a system called the FAB classification scheme, using levels M0 to M7, and was primarily based on their appearance under a microscope. Now, a method of subtyping AML is used that first takes into consideration the cytogenetic causes of AML. This is called the World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 classification. These subtypes include:

  • Acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities

    • AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1

    • AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11

    • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with PML-RARA

    • AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-KMT2A

    • AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34); DEK-NUP214

    • AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2); GATA2, MECOM

    • AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13); RBM15-MKL1

    • AML with mutated NPM1

    • AML with biallelic mutations of CEBPα

  • Acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes

  • Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms

  • Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified

    • AML with minimal differentiation

    • AML without maturation

    • AML with maturation

    • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

    • Acute monoblastic/monocytic leukemia

    • Pure erythroid leukemia

    • Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

    • Acute basophilic leukemia

    • Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis

  • Myeloid sarcoma

  • Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome

    • Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM)

    • Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome

Information about the AML’s subtype will help the doctor recommend a treatment plan for your child. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.