Leukemia - Acute Myeloid - AML - Childhood: Subtypes

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 12/2018

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about how doctors determine the subtype of AML. Use the menu to see other pages.

AML blasts are classified based on how much they look like healthy immature bone marrow blast cells, and more recently, on the molecular and genetic testing of the leukemia cells (see the Diagnosis section). In the recent past, AML was divided into 8 major subtypes according to a system called the FAB classification scheme, using levels M0 to M7, and was primarily based on their appearance under a microscope. Now, a method of subtyping AML is used that first takes into consideration the cytogenetic causes of AML. This is called the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification. These subtypes include:

  • Acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalitiesAcute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes

    • AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1

    • AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11

    • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA

    • AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL

    • AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34); DEK-NUP214

    • AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2); RPN1-EVI1

    • AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1;22)(p13;q13); RBM15-MKL1

    • AML with mutated NPM1

    • AML with mutated CEBPα

  • Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms

  • Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specifiedMyeloid sarcoma

    • AML with minimal differentiation

    • AML without maturation

    • AML with maturation

    • Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

    • Acute monoblastic/monocytic leukemia

    • Acute erythroid leukemiaAcute megakaryoblastic leukemia

      • Pure erythroid leukemia

      • Erythroleukemia, erythroid/myeloid

    • Acute basophilic leukemia

    • Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis

  • Myeloid proliferations related to Down syndrome

    • Transient abnormal myelopoiesis

    • Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome

Information about the cancer’s subtype will help the doctor recommend a treatment plan for your child. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.