ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different treatments doctors use for people with thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Use the menu to see other pages.
This section explains the types of treatments that are the standard of care for thymoma and thymic carcinoma. “Standard of care” means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, you are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Clinical trials are an option to consider for treatment and care for all stages of cancer. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. Learn more about clinical trials in the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections of this guide.
How thymoma and thymic carcinoma are treated
In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to create a person’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as physician assistants, nurse practitioners, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.
The common types of treatments used for thymoma and thymic carcinoma are described below. Your care plan also includes treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the classification and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the person’s preferences and overall health. Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your health care team about the goals of each treatment and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called “shared decision-making.” Shared decision-making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your care. Shared decision-making is particularly important for thymoma and thymic carcinoma because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.
Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. For thymic tumors, surgery is usually done by a thoracic surgeon, a doctor who specializes in surgery of the chest.
Surgery is the most common treatment for early-stage thymoma. For early-stage thymoma, it is also often the only treatment needed. The most common type of surgery for thymoma is called a median sternotomy. During a median sternotomy, the breastbone is split, and the thymoma and the tissue surrounding the tumor are removed. Sometimes, for smaller, early-stage tumors, a less invasive type of surgery using smaller incisions and a laparoscope may be an option. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube with a small camera on the end. With some laparoscopes, the surgeon can work with small instruments through the tube.
Later-stage disease treatment options may include surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible when the entire tumor cannot be removed with surgery. This is called debulking surgery and may provide some relief of symptoms. If the cancer has spread to the lining of the lung, surgery may also include the removal of the lung lining or a portion of the lung.
Talk with your surgeon beforehand about possible side effects, which are based on the extent of surgery. You should also ask what you can expect during recovery from surgery. Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period.
External-beam radiation therapy can be used as the only treatment after surgery. Or, it may be combined with chemotherapy. For people with later-stage disease, radiation therapy is often recommended after the tumor has been surgically removed.
Side effects from radiation therapy may include fatigue, mild skin reactions, difficulty swallowing, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished.
Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy.
Therapies using medication
Treatments using medication are used to destroy cancer cells. Medication may be given through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. When a drug is given this way, it is called systemic therapy. Medication may also be given locally, which is when the medication is applied directly to the cancer or kept in a single part of the body.
This type of medication is generally prescribed by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication.
Medications are often given through an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally). If you are given oral medication, be sure to ask your health care team about how to safely store and handle it.
The types of medications used for thymoma and thymic carcinoma include:
Each of these types of therapies is discussed below in more detail. A person may receive 1 type of medication at a time or a combination of medications given at the same time. They can also be given as part of a treatment plan that includes surgery and/or radiation therapy.
The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. It is also important to let your doctor know if you are taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements. Herbs, supplements, and other drugs can interact with cancer medications, causing unwanted side effects or reduced effectiveness. Learn more about your prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells.
A chemotherapy regimen, schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period. A person may receive 1 drug at a time or a combination of different drugs at the same time. Common drugs for thymoma or thymic carcinoma include:
Etoposide (Toposar, VePesid)
The common drug combinations for thymoma or thymic carcinoma include:
Carboplatin and paclitaxel
Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin
Etoposide and cisplatin
These chemotherapy combinations are sometimes used to shrink the tumor before surgery if the thymic tumor is found at a later stage. Chemotherapy may also be used for people who have a stage IVB/advanced thymic tumor or a recurrent thymic tumor that cannot be completely removed with surgery. A recurrent thymic tumor is a tumor that has come back after treatment (see section below).
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual, the type of drug, and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished.
Learn more about the basics of chemotherapy.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells and limits damage to healthy cells.
Not all tumors have the same targets. To find the most effective treatment, your doctor may run tests to identify the genes, proteins, and other factors in your tumor. This helps doctors better match each person with the most effective treatment whenever possible. In addition, research studies continue to find out more about specific molecular targets and new treatments directed at them. Learn more about the basics of targeted treatments.
For thymic tumors, anti-angiogenesis therapy may be an option. Anti-angiogenesis therapy is a type of targeted therapy. It is focused on stopping angiogenesis, which is the process of making new blood vessels. Because a tumor needs the nutrients delivered by blood vessels to grow and spread, the goal of anti-angiogenesis therapies is to “starve” the tumor. Targeted therapies used for thymic tumors include:
Everolimus (Afinitor, Zortress)
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.
For people with thymic carcinoma that does not respond to chemotherapy, immunotherapy may be a possible treatment option. This is called chemotherapy-refractory thymic carcinoma. See Latest Research.
It is important to talk with the doctor about this treatment's possible side effects. Different types of immunotherapy can cause different side effects. Common side effects include skin reactions, flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, and weight changes. Ask your doctor about possible side effects for the immunotherapy recommended for you. Learn more about the basics of immunotherapy.
Physical, emotional, and social effects of cancer
Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.
Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan being recommended. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options. Many patients also benefit from talking with a social worker and participating in support groups. Ask your doctor about these resources, too.
During treatment, your health care team may ask you to answer questions about your symptoms and side effects and to describe each problem. Be sure to tell the health care team if you are experiencing a problem. This helps the health care team treat any symptoms and side effects as quickly as possible. It can also help prevent more serious problems in the future.
Metastatic thymoma and thymic carcinoma
If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer. If this happens, it is a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience in treating it. Doctors can have different opinions about the best standard treatment plan. Clinical trials might also be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan.
Your treatment plan may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and therapies using medication. When a thymic tumor has spread to another location in the body, it is unlikely that any of the treatments will make the cancer go away forever. Sometimes, when thymic tumors are growing very slowly, your health care team may recommend no treatment for a period of time. You will be closely monitored during this time. Palliative care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects.
For most people, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer is very stressful and difficult. You and your family are encouraged to talk about how you feel with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other people with the same disease, such as through a support group or other peer support program.
Remission and the chance of recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above such as surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may also suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent cancer. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.
People with recurrent cancer sometimes experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
If treatment does not work
Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for some people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
The next section in this guide is About Clinical Trials. It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for people with cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.