Ewing Sarcoma - Childhood: Risk Factors

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 05/2015

ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about the factors that increase the chance of developing this type of cancer. To see other pages, use the menu on the side of your screen.

A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause cancer. Some people with several risk factors never develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors do.  

Doctors and researchers do not know what causes most cancers in children and teens, but the following factors may raise a person’s chance of developing Ewing sarcoma:

  • Genetic changes. Changes in a tumor cell's chromosomes appear to be responsible for Ewing sarcoma, but the disease is not inherited. This means that it isn’t passed down from a father or mother to a child. The genetic changes occur for no known reason.

    A high percentage of Ewing sarcoma cells have a chromosomal translocation, which means that small pieces of genetic material have swapped places inside the tumor cell. Usually the translocation is between chromosomes 11 and 22, although it may also occur between chromosomes 21 and 22, 7 and 22, and 17 and 22. The fusion of these bits of genetic material results in the uncontrolled growth of Ewing sarcoma cells.

  • Age. About two-thirds (64%) of all people with Ewing sarcoma are between the ages of 10 and 20. Ewing sarcoma is rare in adults older than 30 and in very young children.

  • Gender. Ewing sarcoma is more common among boys than girls.

  • Race/ethnicity. Ewing sarcoma occurs most frequently in white people and is rare in black people in the United States and Africa. Ewing sarcoma has been reported in Japan and is uncommon in China.

The next section in this guide is Symptoms and Signs, and it explains what body changes or medical problems this disease can cause. Or, use the menu on the side of your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide.