Cancer begins when normal cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body). Neuroblastoma is a solid cancerous tumor that begins in the nerve cells of infants and young children. It can start in the nerve tissue near the spine in the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis, but it most often begins in the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are located on top of both kidneys and make hormones that help control body functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure.
Neuroblasts are immature nerve cells found in unborn babies. Normal neuroblasts mature into nerve cells or adrenal medulla cells (cells found in the center of the adrenal gland). A neuroblast that does not mature properly can continue to grow, leading to neuroblastoma. However, babies are sometimes born with small clusters of neuroblasts that eventually mature into nerve cells and do not become cancer.
Neuroblastoma develops most often in infants and children younger than five. It can form before the baby is born and can sometimes be found during a prenatal (before birth) ultrasound. Most often, however, neuroblastoma is found after the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes (tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection), liver, lungs, bones, and bone marrow (the spongy, red tissue in the inner part of large bones).
Find out more about basic cancer terms used in this section.
Looking for More of an Overview?
If you would like additional introductory information, explore these related items on Cancer.Net:
- ASCO Answers Fact Sheet: Read a one-page fact sheet (available in PDF) that offers an easy-to-print introduction for this type of cancer.
- Cancer.Net Patient Education Video: View a short video led by an ASCO expert in childhood cancer that provides basic information and areas of research.
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