ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different types of treatments doctors use for children with cancer. Use the menu to see other pages.
In general, cancer in children is uncommon. This means it can be hard for doctors to plan treatments unless they know what has been most effective in other children. That is why more than 60% of children with cancer are treated as part of a clinical trial. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. The “standard of care” is the best treatment known based on previous clinical trials. Clinical trials may test such approaches as a new drug, a new combination of existing treatments, or new doses of current therapies. The health and safety of all children participating in clinical trials are closely monitored.
To take advantage of these newer treatments, children with cancer should be treated at a specialized cancer center. Doctors at these centers have extensive experience in treating children with cancer and have access to the latest research. A doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer is called a pediatric oncologist or pediatric hematologist-oncologist. If a pediatric cancer center is not nearby, general cancer centers sometimes have pediatric specialists who are able to be part of your child’s care.
How childhood cancer is treated
In many cases, a team of doctors works with a child and the family to provide care. This is called a multidisciplinary team. Pediatric cancer centers often have extra support services for children and their families, such as child life specialists, dietitians, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, and counselors. Special activities and programs to help your child and family cope may also be available.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health. Take time to learn about all of your child’s treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your child’s doctor about the goals of each treatment and what your child can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called "shared decision-making." Shared decision-making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your child's care. Shared decision-making is particularly important for childhood cancer because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.
The common types of treatments used for childhood cancer are described below. Your child's care plan also includes treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Surgery is the removal of the tumor, either cancerous or noncancerous, and a small amount of some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. Many children with a tumor will need surgery at some point as a part of their treatment. Surgical oncologists, pediatric surgeons, and neurosurgeons are doctors who specialize in treating a tumor using surgery.
The goal of surgery is to remove the entire tumor and the margin (tissue around the tumor) and to leave a negative margin, which means no visible tumor left behind in the body's tissue. For most childhood tumors, there is still a significant risk of microscopic tumor cells being left after surgery. Doctors are then likely to recommend chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments.
Side effects of surgery may depend on the location of the tumor, the age of your child, the type of tumor, and whether the tumor has metastasized, meaning it has spread to other parts of the body. Before surgery, talk with your child’s health care team about the possible side effects from the specific surgery your child may experience and how those side effects can be managed or relieved. Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery.
Therapies using medication
The treatment plan may include medications to destroy cancer cells. Medication may be given through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. When a drug is given this way, it is called systemic therapy. Medication may also be given locally, which is when the medication is applied directly to the cancer or kept in a single part of the body. For children with cancer, this type of treatment is generally prescribed by a pediatric oncologist.
Medications are often given through an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or as a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally). Most children will have a special IV tube placed under the skin by a surgeon. This type of tube can safely remain in place for many months, to minimize discomfort for the child and reduce needle sticks with each course of treatment. If your child is given oral medications, be sure to ask your health care team about how to safely store and handle them.
The types of medications used for childhood cancer include:
Each of these therapies is discussed below in more detail. A person may receive 1 type of medication at a time or a combination of medications given at the same time. They can also be given as part of a treatment plan that includes surgery and/or radiation therapy.
The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your child’s doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for your child, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications.
It is important to let your child's doctor know if they are taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements. Herbs, supplements, and other drugs can interact with cancer medications, causing unwanted side effects or reduced effectiveness. Learn more about your child’s prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells.
A chemotherapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual drug and dose used but can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished. Talk with your child's cancer care team about what side effects are likely with the chemotherapy being used, and how they will be managed. Learn more about the basics of chemotherapy.
Immunotherapy uses the body's natural defenses to fight cancer by improving your immune system’s ability to attack cancer cells. Examples of immunotherapy include cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and interferons.
The newest immunotherapy being actively researched is the use of a patient's own T-cells (a type of blood cell) to fight cancer. These are called chimeric antigen receptor T-cells. This type of therapy is referred to as CAR T-cell therapy. In CAR T-cell therapy, some T cells are removed from a patient’s blood. Then, the cells are changed so they have specific proteins called receptors. The receptors allow the changed T cells to recognize the cancer cells. The changed T cells are then returned to the patient’s body. Once there, they seek out and destroy cancer cells. Currently, CAR T-cell therapy is only being used for certain leukemias that are difficult to treat and is only available at specialized centers. Your doctor can let you know whether this is an appropriate option for your child. Learn more about the basics of CAR T-cell therapy.
Different types of immunotherapy can cause different side effects. Common side effects include skin reactions, flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, and weight changes. Talk with your child’s doctor about possible side effects for the specific immunotherapy recommended. Learn more about the basics of immunotherapy.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles such as photons or protons to destroy cancer cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer is called a radiation oncologist. Because healthy organs and tissues in the radiation field are at risk for damage and second cancers, especially in young children, doctors often try to avoid or minimize the use of radiation therapy in this age group if possible.
The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. When radiation treatment is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. Newer ways of delivering radiation are also being developed.
Be sure to talk with the radiation oncologist about the specific radiation therapy plan for your child. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time.
Side effects from radiation therapy depend on where the radiation therapy was given and may include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished. However, radiation to the brain may have long-term effects on the child's functioning at school. Children who have had brain radiation therapy should receive special testing to determine if they may benefit from extra services in school. Ask the health care team what side effects are possible and how they will be managed. Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy.
Bone marrow transplantation/stem cell transplantation
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure in which bone marrow that contains cancer is replaced by highly specialized cells. These cells, called hematopoietic stem cells, develop into healthy bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells are blood-forming cells found both in the bloodstream and in the bone marrow. This procedure is also called a stem cell transplant or hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Before recommending transplantation, doctors will talk with the patient and family about the risks of this treatment. They will also consider several other factors, such as the type of cancer, results of any previous treatment, and the patient’s age and general health.
There are 2 types of hematopoietic stem cell transplants depending on the source of the replacement stem cells: allogeneic (ALLO) and autologous (AUTO). ALLO uses donated stem cells from another person, while AUTO uses the patient’s own stem cells. In both types, the goal is to destroy all of the cancer cells in the marrow, blood, and other parts of the body using high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and then allow replacement blood stem cells to create healthy bone marrow.
Side effects depend on the type of transplant and other factors. Learn more about the basics of stem cell and bone marrow transplantation.
Physical, emotional, and social effects of cancer
Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your child’s care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.
Palliative care focuses on improving how your child feels during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. It often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care during treatment for the cancer often have less severe side effects, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. Your child may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Before treatment begins, talk with your child’s doctor about the goals of each treatment in the recommended treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options. Many patients also benefit from talking with a social worker and participating in support groups. Ask your doctor about these resources, too.
During treatment, your child’s health care team may ask you to answer questions about your child’s symptoms and side effects and to describe each problem. Be sure to tell the health care team if your child is experiencing a problem. This helps treat any symptoms and side effects as quickly as possible. It can also help prevent more serious problems in the future.
Learn more about the importance of tracking side effects in another part of this guide. Learn more about palliative care in a separate section of this website.
Remission and the chance of recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your child’s doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding the risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help patients and their families feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent disease. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place in the body (distant recurrence).
If a recurrence happens, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about it. After this testing is done, your child’s doctor will talk with you about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given on a different schedule. Your child’s doctor may suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat recurrent childhood cancer. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.
Patients and their families dealing with recurrent cancer sometimes experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. Families are encouraged to talk with their child's health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help with coping. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
If treatment does not work
Although treatment is successful for many children with cancer, sometimes it is not. If a child’s cancer cannot be cured or controlled, this is called advanced or terminal cancer. This diagnosis is stressful, and advanced cancer may be difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your child’s health care team to express your family’s feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and families and is there to help.
Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are expected to live less than 6 months. Parents and guardians are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Some children may be happier and more comfortable if they can attend school part-time or keep up other activities and social connections. The child’s health care team can help parents or guardians decide on an appropriate level of activity. Making sure a child is physically comfortable and free from pain is an extremely important part of end-of-life care. Learn more about caring for a terminally ill child and advanced cancer care planning.
The death of a child is a profound tragedy, and many families need support to help them cope with the loss. Pediatric cancer centers often have professional staff and support groups to help with the process of grieving. Learn more on grieving the loss of a child.
The next section in this guide is About Clinical Trials. It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for children and teens with cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.