Types of Treatment
ON THIS PAGE: You will learn about the different types of treatments doctors use for people with stomach cancer. Use the menu to see other pages.
This section explains the types of treatments that are the standard of care for stomach cancer. “Standard of care” means the best treatments known. When making treatment plan decisions, you are encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study that tests a new approach to treatment. Doctors want to learn whether the new treatment is safe, effective, and possibly better than the standard treatment. Clinical trials can test a new drug, a new combination of standard treatments, or new doses of standard drugs or other treatments. Clinical trials are an option to consider for treatment and care for all stages of cancer. Your doctor can help you consider all your treatment options. Learn more about clinical trials in the About Clinical Trials and Latest Research sections of this guide.
In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team. For stomach cancer, this team may include the following doctors:
Gastroenterologist, a doctor who specializes in the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach and intestines
Surgeon or surgical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer using surgery
Medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication
Radiation oncologist, a doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat cancer
Pathologist, a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease
Radiologist, a medical doctor who specializes in using imaging tests to diagnose disease
Cancer care teams include a variety of other health care professionals, such as physician assistants, oncology nurses, social workers, pharmacists, counselors, dietitians, and others.
Stomach cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy. Descriptions of the common types of treatments used for stomach cancer are listed below. Your care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.
Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health. Often, a combination of treatments is used for stomach cancer. It can be difficult to cure stomach cancer because it is often not found until it is at an advanced stage.
Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called “shared decision making.” Shared decision making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your care. Shared decision making is particularly important for stomach cancer because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.
Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. The type of surgery used depends on the stage of the cancer (see Stages).
For a very early stage (T1a) cancer, some doctors may recommend a non-surgical treatment called an endoscopic mucosal resection. This is the removal of the tumor with an endoscope (see Diagnosis).
In early stages (stages 0 or I), when the cancer is still only in the stomach, surgery is used to remove the part of the stomach with cancer and nearby lymph nodes. This is called a subtotal or partial gastrectomy. In a partial gastrectomy, the surgeon connects the remaining part of the stomach to the esophagus or small intestine.
If the cancer has spread to the outer stomach wall with or without having spread to the lymph nodes, surgery plus chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used (see below). The surgeon can perform a subtotal gastrectomy or a total gastrectomy, which is the removal of all of the stomach. During a total gastrectomy, the surgeon attaches the esophagus directly to the small intestine.
Gastrectomy is a major surgery and can have serious side effects. After this surgery, the patient will only be able to eat a small amount of food at a time. A common side effect is a group of symptoms called "dumping syndrome," which includes cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and dizziness after eating. This happens when food enters the small intestine too fast. The doctor can suggest ways to avoid this and can prescribe medication to help control these symptoms. The symptoms usually lessen or disappear in a few months, but they may be permanent for some people. Patients who have had their entire stomach removed may need regular injections of vitamin B12 because they may no longer be able to absorb this essential vitamin through their stomach. Before surgery, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects from the specific surgery you will have.
Regional lymph nodes are often removed during surgery because the cancer may have spread to those lymph nodes. This is called a lymphadenectomy. There is still debate as to how many lymph nodes should be removed. In Europe and especially in Japan, more lymph nodes are removed than in the United States.
When the cancer is diagnosed as Stage IV, surgery is typically not recommended as the main treatment (see Metastatic stomach cancer, below). Other types of treatment will be recommended instead.
Learn more about the basics of cancer surgery.
Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. A radiation therapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of treatments given over a set period of time. People with stomach cancer usually receive external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. Radiation therapy may be used before surgery to shrink the size of the tumor or after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells.
Side effects from radiation therapy include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished. Talk with your radiation oncologist about the possible side effects you may experience and your recovery period.
Learn more about the basics of radiation therapy.
Therapies using medication
Systemic therapy is the use of medication to destroy cancer cells. This type of medication is given through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body.
Common ways to give systemic therapies include an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally).
The types of systemic therapies used for stomach cancer include:
Each of these types of therapies are discussed below in more detail. A person may receive 1 type of systemic therapy at a time or a combination of systemic therapies given at the same time. They can also be given as part of a treatment plan that includes surgery and/or radiation therapy.
The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications. It is also important to let your doctor know if you are taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements. Herbs, supplements, and other drugs can interact with cancer medications. Learn more about your prescriptions by using searchable drug databases.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells.
A chemotherapy regimen, or schedule, usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive 1 drug at a time or a combination of different drugs given at the same time.
The goal of chemotherapy can be to destroy cancer remaining after surgery, slow the tumor’s growth, or reduce cancer-related symptoms. It also may be combined with radiation therapy. Currently, there is no single standard chemotherapy treatment regimen that is used worldwide. However, most chemotherapy treatments for stomach cancer are based on combinations of the following drugs:
Other drugs used include:
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away after treatment is finished.
Learn more about the basics of chemotherapy.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to healthy cells.
Not all tumors have the same targets. To find the most effective treatment, your doctor may run tests to identify the genes, proteins, and other factors in your tumor. This helps doctors better match each patient with the most effective treatment whenever possible. In addition, research studies continue to find out more about specific molecular targets and new treatments directed at them. Learn more about the basics of targeted treatments.
Targeted therapy for stomach cancer includes:
HER2-targeted therapy. Some cancers may make too much of a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This type of cancer is called HER2-positive cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin, Herzuma, Ogivri, Ontruzant) plus chemotherapy may be an option for patients with later-stage HER2-positive stomach cancer.
Anti-angiogenesis therapy. Anti-angiogenesis therapy is focused on stopping angiogenesis, which is the process of making new blood vessels. Because a tumor needs the nutrients delivered by blood vessels to grow and spread, the goal of anti-angiogenesis therapies is to “starve” the tumor. For patients whose tumor has grown while receiving initial chemotherapy, the drug ramucirumab (Cyramza) may be an additional option.
Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for a specific medication and how they can be managed.
Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.
For patients with advanced stomach cancer that has PD-L1 or is MSI-H (see Diagnosis), pembrolizumab (Keytruda) may be an option for patients when chemotherapy does not work.
Different types of immunotherapy can cause different side effects. Common side effects include skin reactions, flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, and weight changes. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for the immunotherapy recommended for you. Learn more about the basics of immunotherapy.
Physical, emotional, and social effects of cancer
Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.
Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options.
During treatment, your health care team may ask you to answer questions about your symptoms and side effects and to describe each problem. Be sure to tell the health care team if you are experiencing a problem. This helps the health care team treat any symptoms and side effects as quickly as possible. It can also help prevent more serious problems in the future.
Learn more about the importance of tracking side effects in another part of this guide. Learn more about palliative care in a separate section of this website.
Metastatic stomach cancer
If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer (stage IV in the Stages section). If this happens, it is a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience in treating it. Doctors can have different opinions about the best standard treatment plan. Clinical trials might also be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan.
The goal of treatment at this stage is typically to lengthen a patient’s life and care for the symptoms of the cancer since metastatic stomach cancer is not considered curable. Any treatment, including chemotherapy or radiation therapy, is considered palliative therapy. Surgery is rarely used, and the main treatment is usually chemotherapy. It is important to note that studies show that the use of palliative chemotherapy for stomach cancer can improve both the length and quality of life.
Given the inability to cure metastatic stomach cancer, this diagnosis is stressful and at times, difficult to bear. You and your family are encouraged to talk about how you feel with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group.
Remission and the chance of recovery
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent cancer. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
If treatment does not work
Recovery from cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
People who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
The next section in this guide is About Clinical Trials. It offers more information about research studies that are focused on finding better ways to care for people with cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.