A person with cancer may have more than 1 option for treating the disease. In making this choice, patients often ask for the opinions of family members. In some cases, family members may disagree with each other and with the patient. This can create conflict when family members need each other's support the most. A person with cancer may have more than 1 option for treating the disease. In making this choice, patients often ask for the opinions of family members. In some cases, family members may disagree with each other and with the patient. This can create conflict at a time when family members need each other's support the most. The situation can be more complex when the patient is a child or an adult who is medically unable to make decisions. This article provides suggestions on how to communicate and work together to make treatment choices.
Evaluating treatment options
If you are involved in selecting treatment, these questions may help you evaluate the choices:
Does the person with cancer understand the risks of treatment and the potential consequences of his or her choices?
Are the patient's wishes openly stated and being respected?
Is this treatment in harmony with the patient's beliefs and values?
Is the treatment they are considering recommended by their oncologist and the health care team?
In each aspect, consider the patient's viewpoint first. As the person with cancer, you have the right to be heard and have your wishes respected. You also have the right to change your mind. As a family member, remember that the patient has asked for your view because he or she respects your opinion. But various factors may lead him or her to make a different decision. Even when you disagree, keep communicating with each other and support the patient in his or her choices.
Talk openly about the patient's priorities for treatment. These could range from surviving as long as possible to maintaining a specific quality of life, even if that means stopping treatment. If this is difficult for your family to discuss, ask a doctor, nurse, member of the clergy, social worker, or counselor to held lead this conversation.
Barriers to talking about treatment options
It can be difficult to talk openly about treatment options for many reasons, including:
Emotions, such as sadness, fear, anger, and confusion
Family patterns of talking about health care, including differences in how generations communicate
Cultural, spiritual, or religious beliefs about health, illness, and death
Misconceptions or lack of knowledge about treatment, side effects, and chance of recovery
Fear of giving up independence and the effect on lifestyle and finances
Fatigue or exhaustion from current treatment
Denial or the belief that if you do not talk about it, it is not really happening
Past experiences with cancer and other illnesses
Identify potential barriers and talk about them up front. This will help you get the information, support, and resources you all need to make the best choices.
Continuing to communicate
Making treatment decisions may require many conversations with the health care team and loved ones. One of the first questions to ask the doctor is, “When do decisions need to be made?” Often, a decision is not needed right away. This can lower the level of anxiety for everyone involved in reviewing the options.
An advance directive is a legal document that tells the health care team what to do if the patient is unable to make decisions. The patient is the only person who can change or cancel these documents. Regardless of their health, all people should have advance directives, including the following:
Living Will. This document gives instructions about the health care that the patient does and does not want under specific circumstances.
Health Care Power of Attorney. This appoints a specific person to make medical decisions based on the patient's wishes. It only takes effect when the patient is unable to make his or her own decisions.
Learn more about putting your health care wishes in writing.
State laws vary about the age at which a child can make his or her own medical decisions. Most laws consider a child's best interests and ability to make his or her own decisions and understand the potential consequences of those decisions. Typically, the parents make decisions for a child who is younger than the state's age limit.
If an adult patient is unable to make medical decisions, the family should look first for any advance directives indicating his or her wishes. If there are none, follow the intent of that person's wishes. The person's treatment center should be able to refer you to a medical ethics committee or palliative care team that can guide you through the decision-making process. Attorneys and legal-aid clinics can also be helpful in addressing legal concerns.