Hormone therapy is a type of cancer treatment that removes, blocks, or adds specific hormones to the body. It is also called hormonal therapy or endocrine therapy.
A main reason that hormone therapy may be recommended is because some types of cancer use the body's natural hormones to fuel their growth. It is important to know that hormone therapy for cancer treatment is not the same as menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). These treatments are used to manage menopause symptoms. Learn more about menopausal hormone therapy.
What are hormones?
Hormones are chemicals that the body makes naturally. As hormones move through the bloodstream, they help control the activity of certain cells or organs. These include growth and development, sexual function, reproduction, mood, and how the body turns food into energy.
Hormones are made by glands. The major hormone-producing glands include the thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testicles. These glands are part of the body's endocrine system, which consists of all hormones in the body.
What does hormone therapy do?
Hormone therapies change the amount of hormones in your body in different ways. You may have tests to see if a cancer is sensitive to hormones. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy to:
Prevent the body from making a hormone
Change how a hormone acts in the body
Block a hormone from binding to cancer cells
How is hormone therapy used to treat cancer?
Doctors often use hormone therapy along with other types of cancer treatment, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. If a person cannot have those treatments because of other health problems, hormone therapy may be used alone.
Hormone therapy can be used in different ways at different times. These include:
Before surgery or radiation therapy to shrink a tumor. This is called neoadjuvant therapy.
After other cancer treatments to reduce the risk that cancer will come back. This is called adjuvant therapy.
For cancer that comes back after treatment, called recurrent cancer.
For cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, called metastatic cancer.
The goal of hormone therapy depends on the type of cancer and how far it has spread. Sometimes, the goal is to keep cancer from coming back after treatment. Or the goal may be to stop or slow cancer growth.
Hormone therapy may also be used to help prevent or manage cancer symptoms. Relieving side effects is an important part of cancer care and treatment. This is called palliative care or supportive care.
Be sure to ask your doctor why a specific hormone therapy is being recommended for you and how the therapy will contribute to your cancer treatment plan.
What kind of cancers can be treated with hormone therapy?
Hormone levels can control several types of cancer. Common cancers that are treated with hormone therapy are:
Breast cancer. In many cases, breast cancer depends on the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone to grow. Tumors that have receptors that these hormones can bind to are called "hormone receptor positive." Blocking the hormones can help prevent a recurrence and death from breast cancer. Learn about estrogen and progesterone receptor testing for breast cancer.
Prostate cancer. The growth of prostate cancer is usually driven by hormones called androgens. The most common androgen is testosterone. Lowering levels of androgens can help slow the growth of cancer.
Thyroid cancer. People with thyroid cancer who are treated with surgery usually need thyroid hormone therapy. In addition to replacing the hormone that is needed by the body, the therapy may slow down the growth of any remaining cancer cells in the body.
Hormone therapy can also be recommended for other cancers that are less common. Examples include:
Adrenal cancer. An adrenal gland tumor may produce excess hormones. The doctor may prescribe various medications to control the levels of these hormones before, during, or after other treatments.
Neuroendocrine tumors. Hormone therapies may slow the growth of a neuroendocrine tumor (NET). They can also be used to control the symptoms created by the hormones a NET can release.
Pituitary gland tumor. People with a tumor in the pituitary gland may not make enough of important hormones that they need. Hormone therapy may be needed to replace the different hormones that the pituitary gland is responsible for.
Uterine cancer. The growth of certain types of uterine cancer cells that are sensitive to estrogen and progesterone can be slowed down with hormone therapy.
There are several types of hormone therapy that can be used alone or in combination to treat these and other hormone-sensitive cancers. You can learn more about these therapies in the cancer-specific sections on Cancer.Net. Look at the "Types of Treatment" and "Latest Research" pages in each guide for specific information.
How is hormone therapy given?
Hormone therapy can be given in different ways. They include:
Oral hormone therapy. You can take some types of hormone therapy by mouth in a pill, capsule, or liquid form. Many oral hormone therapies can be prescribed by a doctor, picked up from a pharmacy, and then taken at home on a regular schedule. Talk with your health care team if you have any questions about the instructions for taking your medication at home.
Injected hormone therapy. This is when you receive hormone therapy as a shot. You may receive these shots in your arm, leg, hip, or belly. They may be given in a muscle or injected under the skin. Hormone injections may be given at a clinic or doctor's office. Your health care team may also teach you to do the injections at home.
Surgical ablation. Surgery to remove an organ that makes certain hormones is sometimes recommended. For example, the testicles may need to be removed to reduce testosterone levels as part of prostate cancer treatment. This procedure is called a bilateral orchiectomy. Another example is when the ovaries are surgically removed to stop estrogen production as part of breast cancer treatment. This is called ovarian ablation. Surgical ablation is done in a hospital or a specialized medical center.
Your hormone therapy plan
The type of hormone therapy prescribed for you, the amount you take, and how often you take it depends on many factors. These include:
The type of cancer
The stage of cancer
The risk of cancer returning or how long it had been before the cancer returned
The type of cancer treatment you have already received or currently receive
Side effects that you experience
Whether or not menopause has occurred
Some people need hormone therapy for a short time. Other people will remain on hormone therapy for several years or the rest of their lives. Hormone treatment can be daily, monthly, yearly, or as needed.
For example, with certain types of breast cancer, people can take daily hormone therapy for 5 to 10 years. People with prostate cancer may have intermittent hormone therapy. This means that they will receive hormone therapy at specific times, but the treatment will be stopped temporarily before it starts again. After thyroid cancer treatment, hormone therapy is often a daily part of a person's life.
Talk to your health care team about why they recommend a specific hormone therapy plan for you and what to expect.
Questions to ask the health care team
Consider asking your health care team the following questions about hormone therapy:
What type of hormone therapy treatment do you recommend for me? Why?
What are the goals of this specific hormone therapy?
Will hormone therapy be my only cancer treatment? If not, will it be given before, during, or after other cancer treatments?
How will I receive hormone treatment therapy, such as by pill or injection? How often?
What are the possible side effects of this treatment in the short term?
Will this treatment affect my daily life? Will I be able to work, exercise, and do my usual activities?
What are the possible long-term effects of this treatment?
Could this treatment affect my sex life? If so, how and for how long?
Could this treatment affect my ability to have children? If so, should I talk with a fertility specialist before cancer treatment begins?
Who should I talk with about any side effects I experience? How soon?
Whom should I call with questions or problems?
How can I reach them during regular office hours? After hours?
How will we know if the hormone therapy is working?
Will I need any tests or scans before, during, or after hormone therapy?
Could the dose of my hormone therapy change over time?